default Phone :
+65 67472404

default Location :
6 Tagore Drive, Tagore Building, #02-04, Singapore 787623


Fumigation is the process where a fumigant is released into an enclosed space at a required temperature and humidity to exist in a gaseous state in sufficient concentration and duration to eliminate all life stages of the target pest. In sufficient concentration it can also be lethal to humans and animals.

There is often a general misconception amongst people who believe that a pest control process is a fumigation. Regular pest control service is not fumigation. The main difference between regular pest control products and a fumigant is that the fumigant is highly toxic and lethal. A fumigation treatment can only be carried out by persons specially trained to apply the fumigants. Entering a fumigated area requires the use of an appropriate respirator or a self-contained breathing apparatus and safety measures must be adopted to ensure that people do not wander into the fumigated area. Safe use of fumigants takes experienced, properly trained and certified professionals.

Inavab Fumigation has an experienced team of licensed fumigators and technicians with several decades of collective experience to handle fumigation of manufacturing plants, stored food product storage facilities and quarantine pre-shipment. Safety is of vital importance in every step of the process when preparing and performing fumigation. We are well equipped with the knowledge, capabilities and equipment to fumigate a wide array of structures to control insects, termites and other pests safely and effectively as well as to supply and operate the AQUARIUS 500 gas abatement system to carry out the aeration in the safest way with no residue gas leakage into the work space.

FAQ ON ISPM 15 Fumigation

Types of Fumigation

  • Import/Export Containers (ISPM 15 compliance)
  • Phytosanitary treatments
  • Stored Food Product Storage Facilities (Sheet Fumigation)
  • Fumigation and Ventilation in Transit in ship holds

What is ISPM 15?ISPM 15 refers to the ‘International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures Publication No. 15: Guidelines for Regulating Wood Packaging Material in International Trade’.

Why was ISPM 15 developed?ISPM 15 was developed to address the global spread of timber pests by regulating the movement of timber packing and dunnage in international trade. ISPM 15 describes phytosanitary measures to reduce the risk of introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests associated with solid timber packing material.

Who developed and endorsed ISPM 15?The United Nations Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO) addresses plant quarantine through the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC). The IPPC is an international treaty administered by the FAO and implemented through the cooperation of member governments.

IPPC ( International Plant Protection Convention )Marking:ISPMs are recogniZed as the basis for phytosanitary measures applied by members of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) under the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures

Commodity fumigation
SG – refers to the Country code

22 – refers to the Fumigation Vendor’s ID No.

MB – refers to Methyl Bromide Gas

HT – refers to Heat Treatment

What is timber packing and dunnage?

  • Packing is used to support, protect or carry a commodity
  • Packing includes dunnage, pallets, crating, packing blocks, drums, cases, load boards, pallet collars and skids
  • Packing can be constructed of any material including timber.
  • Dunnage is used to secure or support a commodity but does not remain associated with the commodity

Which countries need ISPM 15 fumigation?Many countries have implemented systems to accept ISPM 15 compliant imports. Singapore has implemented ISPM 15 for exports too. Countries are not obliged to advise trading partners of their ISPM 15 export readiness so it is difficult to determine the ISPM 15 implementation status of various countries. The National Plant Protection Organisation (NPPO) of the importing country is the authority to give you the correct information. For a list of countries which require ISPM, please see Useful Links: on ISPM Countries.

How effective is ISPM 15 fumigation? Does the ISPM 15 approved measures of heat treatment and methyl bromide fumigation offer permanent protection to timber packing against timber and non-timber pests?Neither of the ISPM 15 approved measures offer permanent protection against post-treatment infestation of timber packing by timber and non-timber pests. The treatment only controls pests present at the time of treatment. Often, post-treatment infestation of solid timber packing is an important quarantine issue.

Should recycle wood packing material be re-fumigated? Should repaired, re-manufactured and recycled wood packaging material (VPM) be subject to re-treatment in addition to being re-certified and re-marked?Yes. In order to establish a chain of custody and maintain accountability, repaired, re-manufactured and recycled WPM should be subjected to re-treatment. All previous ISPM15 markings shall be removed or obliterated and the product re-certified and re-marked by an authorized agency.

Why timber packing has to be free of bark? Why do many countries require imported timber packing (including dunnage) to be free of bark?Bark has the potential to contain numerous pathogens of quarantine concern. It also acts as a shelter site for insect pests and encourages post treatment infestation by both insect and pathogen pests. The presence of bark also hampers inspection procedures and may reduce the effectiveness of methyl bromide fumigation. For these reasons, countries require imported timber packing to be free of bark.

Where should ISPM 15 marks be located on timber packing?To aid in validation inspections ISPM 15 compliant marks should be clearly visible and they should appear on at least two opposite sides of the article being certified. The marks must be permanent and not transferable. Hence metal plates and stickers are not acceptable.



  • Adults have a distinctive elongated snout
  • Adults are dark brown with 4 distinct reddish yellow spots, about 2 to 4mm in length
  • Adults are able to fly

Life History

  • Females lay 300-575 eggs over a 4 to 5 month life span
  • Females generally lay eggs within a kernel but they may lay multiple eggs per kernel and more than 1 larvae can develop within a single kernel.
  • Optimum development takes place between 26 to 30oC at a relative humidity of 70% with the life cycle being completed in about weeks.


  • Feed on barley, corn, sorghum, rice, rye, wheat and even raw processed cereals such as pasta
  • Grains with round holes are a sign of infestation by emerging adults
  • Can almost complete total destruction of product at high densities
  • Infestation can lead to heating and increased moisture levels in grain

Granary Weevil (Sitophilusgranarius)


Life History




Life History


Saw-toothed Grain Beetle (Oryzaephilussurinamensis)


  • Adults are a slender brown with serrated sides on the body, about 3mm in length
  • Adults are unable to fly and must be introduced from contaminated grain.

Life History

  • Females lay between 45 – 285 eggs during their lifetime.
  • Eggs are dropped loosely among grain kernels or tucked into a crevice in a kernel.
  • Adults live an average of six to ten months, but can survive for up to three years
  • Optimum development takes place around 32°C at a relative humidity of 70%where the life cycle can be completed in 3 to 4 weeks


  • Feed on oats, bran, seeds, wheat, barley, animal feed dried fruit, packaged foods
  • Adults feed on grain dust and broken kernels
  • Larvae feed on both grain dust and germ
  • Severe infestations can cause grain to become overheated and cause increased moisture levels in grain contributing to further damage.
  • Capable of rapid population buildup in large bulks of grain in heated buildings.
  • Is not able to feed on sound kernels, but is able to attack even slightly damaged grain. Hence it is regarded as a secondary pest

Foreign Grain Beetle (Ahasverusadvena)


Adults are small, reddish-brown, about 2 mm length with a conspicuous rounded lobe on each front corner of the thorax

Life History

  • Females can lay up to 8 or 12 eggs per day, but generally produces 1 to 4.
  • Eggs are laid singly or in clusters of two or three, and they hatch in 4 to 5 days at optimal temperatures 30°C
  • Adults have an average lifespan of 215 to 250 days.
  • Life cycle at optimum temperature is about 30 days


  • The foreign grain beetle does not damage stored grain. It does not feed on the grain itself, but on the mold growing on the grain Its diet is entirely fungi
  • Its presence in grain is an indication of moldy grain.
  • When grain is placed in storage and not monitored periodically, moisture can accumulate in the storage areas and molds then develop. This can occur even if the grain was originally dried below thirteen to fifteen percent moisture.
  • The presence of fungus feeding insects in grain is an indication of the need to control grain temperature and moisture.
  • In their natural environment, both the larval and adult stages feed on molds growing on the grain. The insect is a strong flyer and, from long distances, can easily locate moldy grain in bins
  • The beetle can only survive if relative humidity exceeds 70%, so it emerges in higher-humidity conditions

Red Flour Beetle (Triboliumcastaneum)


  • Adults are reddish brown, about 4mm in length
  • Similar in appearance to the confused flour beetle
  • Red flour beetles have 3 knobs on end of antenna
  • Adults are able to fly in warm weather

Life History

  • Each female lays 400 to 500 eggs in their life span on 1 year
  • Infestation takes place in a temperature range of 22oC to 40oC.
  • Optimum development occurs in the range of 32oC to 35oC.
  • Red flour beetle has one of the highest rates of population growth for stored-product insects.


  • Feeds on grain, flour, animal feed, cereal products, beans, spices, oilseeds, packaged food, dead insects
  • Prefers damaged grain but will attack intact wheat kernels, feeding first on the germ and then the endosperm
  • Can release a pungent odor in infested commodity
  • Infestation can lead to heating and increased moisture levels in grain
  • May cause food to acquire a pinkish tinge when a large number of insects are present

Confused Flour Beetle (Triboliumconfusum)


  • Adults are reddish brown, about 4mm in length
  • Adults are unable to fly

Life History

  • Females lay around 200-500 eggs loosely in food over a 6-12 month lifespan
  • Infestation can establish at temperatures as low as 63°F, but development is prolonged
  • Optimum development occurs in the range of 32oC to 35oC at a relative humidity of 70%
  • Have one of the highest population growth rates for stored product insects


  • Feed on grain, flour, animal feed, cereal products, beans, and spices, dried plant roots, dried fruit, dead insects
  • Infests whole grain, but only feeds on dust and broken kernels
  • Can release a pungent odor in infested commodity
  • Infestation can lead to heating and increased moisture levels in grain
    May cause food to acquire a pinkish tinge when a large number of insects are present

Indian Meal Moth (Plodiainterpunctella)


  • One of the most commonly reported pests of stored grains
  • Adults fly at night and are attracted to lights.
  • Adults are bi-colored with a cream/yellow at the base and a red/dark gray on the outer portion of the wings
  • Adults have a wingspan of14 – 20 mm length and 6-7mm body length

Life History

  • Females lay 100-300 eggs directly on the commodity for about a 5-28 day lifespan
  • Eggs are sticky
  • Optimum development takes place around 30°C at a relative humidity of 70% with the entire life cycle completed in about 28 days.


  • Feed on cereal, corn, rice, sorghum, spices, nuts, dried commodities and wheatoilseeds, cocoa, chocolate, dried fruit, dried roots, herbs, tobacco, pulses, dead insects, Processed, packaged, manufactured foods, confectionery products
  • Damage is caused only by larvae and is not distinctive.
  • Larvae eat broken kernels of grain and grain dust and cannot penetrate undamaged grain.
  • larvae cannot chew through packages, so they must enter through a hole or at the seam
  • Larvae leave silky webbing that can contaminate commodity and clog machinery
  • Infested foodstuff is covered with silky webbing and frass from larvae.
  • Webbing can result in condensation that causes increased humidity and micro-habitats for toxic molds
    Adults fly which allow easy dispersal for infestations in other areas
  • Infestation can lead to heating and increased moisture levels in grain

SAP Beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)

Adults are 2 to 4 mm in length, oval, flattened and light brown to black in color often with 1 or 2 yellow to reddish brown spots.
Antennae end in 3-segmented, flattened club.
Sap beetles are highly mobile.

Life History

  • Have a very high fecundity, a single female can lay up to 1000 eggs over a 3 to 4 month period
  • Females lay eggs on or in food,
  • Larvae are active and move amongst the food, burrowing into food material.
  • Populations develop rapidly,


  • Feed on stored grain, dried fruit, fresh fruit, flowers, fungi, carrion,
  • Some feed on sap of trees and juice of fruits,
  • Presence of holes in commodity
  • Presence of adult beetles in sometimes large aggregations
  • Larvae and adults both feed but damage is not distinctive.
  • Larvae may burrow into mouly grain residues.
  • Adults will feed on dried and ripening fruit where their pest status is most significant.
  • Sap beetles may transmit mould spores, bacteria and yeasts.


Phone : +65 67472404  
Location : 6 Tagore Drive, Tagore Building, #02-04, Singapore 787623