default Phone :
+65 67472404

default Location :
6 Tagore Drive, Tagore Building, #02-04, Singapore 787623

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FUMIGANTS

Fumigants are gaseous forms of chemicals that are used to eliminate the pest risk. Anypest control product is NOT a fumigant. The main difference between a regular pest control product and a fumigant is that the fumigant, being in either a liquid or solid form is converted into a gas during the application process and it remains in the gaseous form during the entire fumigation period until the fumigation structure is aerated. Fumigants are very toxic and lethal to insects and in sufficient concentration it can also be lethal to humans and animals.

Insect pests or other pests found living in or around the product, also hide in hard to reach nooks and crevices in storage premises, food processing units, equipment, etc. None of the insecticidal formulations which may be sprayed in such places will be effective in containing the pests. It is only the fumigant which could penetrate such inaccessible spots and eradicate the pests. When a pest population warrants a treatment, fumigants are the best tool to penetrate into structures and commodities without leaving a dangerous residue. However, fumigants can be hazardous and deadly and require a specialised team to apply the fumigant and carry out the fumigation process.

RICE WEEVIL (SITOPHILUS ORYZAE)

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Description

  • Adults have a distinctive elongated snout
  • Adults are dark brown with 4 distinct reddish yellow spots, about 2 to 4mm in length
  • Adults are able to fly

Life History

  • Females lay 300-575 eggs over a 4 to 5 month life span
  • Females generally lay eggs within a kernel but they may lay multiple eggs per kernel and more than 1 larvae can develop within a single kernel.
  • Optimum development takes place between 26 to 30oC at a relative humidity of 70% with the life cycle being completed in about weeks.

Damage

  • Feed on barley, corn, sorghum, rice, rye, wheat and even raw processed cereals such as pasta
  • Grains with round holes are a sign of infestation by emerging adults
  • Can almost complete total destruction of product at high densities
  • Infestation can lead to heating and increased moisture levels in grain

Granary Weevil (Sitophilusgranarius)

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Description

Life History

Damage

CIGARETTE BEETLE (LASIODERMA SERRICORNE)

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Description

Life History

Damage

Saw-toothed Grain Beetle (Oryzaephilussurinamensis)

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Description

  • Adults are a slender brown with serrated sides on the body, about 3mm in length
  • Adults are unable to fly and must be introduced from contaminated grain.

Life History

  • Females lay between 45 – 285 eggs during their lifetime.
  • Eggs are dropped loosely among grain kernels or tucked into a crevice in a kernel.
  • Adults live an average of six to ten months, but can survive for up to three years
  • Optimum development takes place around 32°C at a relative humidity of 70%where the life cycle can be completed in 3 to 4 weeks

Damage

  • Feed on oats, bran, seeds, wheat, barley, animal feed dried fruit, packaged foods
  • Adults feed on grain dust and broken kernels
  • Larvae feed on both grain dust and germ
  • Severe infestations can cause grain to become overheated and cause increased moisture levels in grain contributing to further damage.
  • Capable of rapid population buildup in large bulks of grain in heated buildings.
  • Is not able to feed on sound kernels, but is able to attack even slightly damaged grain. Hence it is regarded as a secondary pest

Foreign Grain Beetle (Ahasverusadvena)

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Description

Adults are small, reddish-brown, about 2 mm length with a conspicuous rounded lobe on each front corner of the thorax

Life History

  • Females can lay up to 8 or 12 eggs per day, but generally produces 1 to 4.
  • Eggs are laid singly or in clusters of two or three, and they hatch in 4 to 5 days at optimal temperatures 30°C
  • Adults have an average lifespan of 215 to 250 days.
  • Life cycle at optimum temperature is about 30 days

Damage

  • The foreign grain beetle does not damage stored grain. It does not feed on the grain itself, but on the mold growing on the grain Its diet is entirely fungi
  • Its presence in grain is an indication of moldy grain.
  • When grain is placed in storage and not monitored periodically, moisture can accumulate in the storage areas and molds then develop. This can occur even if the grain was originally dried below thirteen to fifteen percent moisture.
  • The presence of fungus feeding insects in grain is an indication of the need to control grain temperature and moisture.
  • In their natural environment, both the larval and adult stages feed on molds growing on the grain. The insect is a strong flyer and, from long distances, can easily locate moldy grain in bins
  • The beetle can only survive if relative humidity exceeds 70%, so it emerges in higher-humidity conditions

Red Flour Beetle (Triboliumcastaneum)

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Description

  • Adults are reddish brown, about 4mm in length
  • Similar in appearance to the confused flour beetle
  • Red flour beetles have 3 knobs on end of antenna
  • Adults are able to fly in warm weather

Life History

  • Each female lays 400 to 500 eggs in their life span on 1 year
  • Infestation takes place in a temperature range of 22oC to 40oC.
  • Optimum development occurs in the range of 32oC to 35oC.
  • Red flour beetle has one of the highest rates of population growth for stored-product insects.

Damage

  • Feeds on grain, flour, animal feed, cereal products, beans, spices, oilseeds, packaged food, dead insects
  • Prefers damaged grain but will attack intact wheat kernels, feeding first on the germ and then the endosperm
  • Can release a pungent odor in infested commodity
  • Infestation can lead to heating and increased moisture levels in grain
  • May cause food to acquire a pinkish tinge when a large number of insects are present

Confused Flour Beetle (Triboliumconfusum)

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Description

  • Adults are reddish brown, about 4mm in length
  • Adults are unable to fly

Life History

  • Females lay around 200-500 eggs loosely in food over a 6-12 month lifespan
  • Infestation can establish at temperatures as low as 63°F, but development is prolonged
  • Optimum development occurs in the range of 32oC to 35oC at a relative humidity of 70%
  • Have one of the highest population growth rates for stored product insects

Damage

  • Feed on grain, flour, animal feed, cereal products, beans, and spices, dried plant roots, dried fruit, dead insects
  • Infests whole grain, but only feeds on dust and broken kernels
  • Can release a pungent odor in infested commodity
  • Infestation can lead to heating and increased moisture levels in grain
    May cause food to acquire a pinkish tinge when a large number of insects are present

Indian Meal Moth (Plodiainterpunctella)

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Description

  • One of the most commonly reported pests of stored grains
  • Adults fly at night and are attracted to lights.
  • Adults are bi-colored with a cream/yellow at the base and a red/dark gray on the outer portion of the wings
  • Adults have a wingspan of14 – 20 mm length and 6-7mm body length

Life History

  • Females lay 100-300 eggs directly on the commodity for about a 5-28 day lifespan
  • Eggs are sticky
  • Optimum development takes place around 30°C at a relative humidity of 70% with the entire life cycle completed in about 28 days.

Damage

  • Feed on cereal, corn, rice, sorghum, spices, nuts, dried commodities and wheatoilseeds, cocoa, chocolate, dried fruit, dried roots, herbs, tobacco, pulses, dead insects, Processed, packaged, manufactured foods, confectionery products
  • Damage is caused only by larvae and is not distinctive.
  • Larvae eat broken kernels of grain and grain dust and cannot penetrate undamaged grain.
  • larvae cannot chew through packages, so they must enter through a hole or at the seam
  • Larvae leave silky webbing that can contaminate commodity and clog machinery
  • Infested foodstuff is covered with silky webbing and frass from larvae.
  • Webbing can result in condensation that causes increased humidity and micro-habitats for toxic molds
    Adults fly which allow easy dispersal for infestations in other areas
  • Infestation can lead to heating and increased moisture levels in grain

SAP Beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)

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Description
Adults are 2 to 4 mm in length, oval, flattened and light brown to black in color often with 1 or 2 yellow to reddish brown spots.
Antennae end in 3-segmented, flattened club.
Sap beetles are highly mobile.

Life History

  • Have a very high fecundity, a single female can lay up to 1000 eggs over a 3 to 4 month period
  • Females lay eggs on or in food,
  • Larvae are active and move amongst the food, burrowing into food material.
  • Populations develop rapidly,

Damage

  • Feed on stored grain, dried fruit, fresh fruit, flowers, fungi, carrion,
  • Some feed on sap of trees and juice of fruits,
  • Presence of holes in commodity
  • Presence of adult beetles in sometimes large aggregations
  • Larvae and adults both feed but damage is not distinctive.
  • Larvae may burrow into mouly grain residues.
  • Adults will feed on dried and ripening fruit where their pest status is most significant.
  • Sap beetles may transmit mould spores, bacteria and yeasts.
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Phone : +65 67472404  
Location : 6 Tagore Drive, Tagore Building, #02-04, Singapore 787623